Additive manufacturing (AM) is a hot topic in DoD and industry, and the scenario most often envisioned involves 3D printing machines building components one layer at a time from a CAD drawing. However, there is another additive repair capability that is also growing within the maintenance community. Cold Spray Repair is a material-deposition process whereby small particles are impacted at high velocity onto a substrate. Cold spray has been used to form corrosion and wear resistant coatings, but also has the capability for structural repairs. It can be used to provide dimensional restoration and to repair worn and/or corroded parts fabricated from a variety of materials including aluminum, titanium, magnesium and steel. Cold Spray has several advantages – including operating at low temperatures below the melting point of metals, requiring no combustible fuels or gases, and the creation of very low porosity deposits. This virtual technology forum will provide examples of cold spray additive repair capabilities currently in use within the military Services, discuss the benefits and challenges of each, and talk about what is next in the world of cold spray repair technology.
1300-1309: Welcome and Overview – Greg Kilchenstein (OSD-MPP)
1309-1310: Administrative Notes – Debbie Lilu (NCMS)
1310-1330: Keyport Additive Repair – Pat Bergen (NUWC Keyport)
1330-1350: Applications for Ship Maintenance and Repair – Tom Stamey (Puget Sound)
1350-1410: NAVAIR Cold Spray Repair – Fred Lancaster (NAVAIR)
1410-1430: USAF Cold Spray Repair – Reg White (AFMC)
1430-1450: Future/Next Technology – Vic Champagne (ARDEC)
1450-1500: Wrap-up and JTEG Principals Comments
Tech Forum Minutes
Event: On 29 September, 2015, the Joint Technology Exchange Group (JTEG), in coordination with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), hosted a virtual forum on “Cold Spray Additive Repair”.
Purpose: The purpose of the forum was to provide information and exchange ideas on cold spray additive repair projects and techniques, the challenges, and the tools and processes being employed by DoD maintenance activities and supporting activities.
Welcome: Greg Kilchenstein (OSD-Maintenance), welcomed everyone to the forum and emphasized the capability that cold spray has in protecting and repairing parts and equipment. He discussed the restoration of parts through cold spray and the potential benefits of expanding cold spray repair applications. JTEG technology forums are held on the last Tuesday of each month and focus on a specific technological capability.
Administrative: This was an open forum. The presentations, along with questions and answers, were conducted through Defense Collaboration Services (DCS) and an audio line. Over 50 participants from across DoD and industry joined in the forum. Questions were sent through DCS and answered by the presenters during the forum.
Applications for Ship Maintenance and Repair – Tom Stamey (Puget Sound) provided a brief description of cold spray and its applications. He then discussed cold spray repairs by VRC Metals and ARL on the TD-63 actuator, and similar repairs on the CUNI 70/30 and tin bronze. He then mentioned some opportunities to use cold spray repair techniques, followed by the obstacles encountered to use cold spray on ships and at NAVSEA.
NAVAIR Cold Spray Repair – Fred Lancaster (NAVAIR) gave an update on the cold spray application on F-18 A/D & E-Fs. He discussed the status of the technology deployment at NAVAIR facilities, and provided a list of cold spray applications and repairs. He then provided some examples of cold spray repairs and an example of cold spray savings.
USAF Cold Spray Repair: – Reg White (AFMC) provided a status on HQ AFMC’s implementation of Cold Spray technology. The Air Force currently limits cold spray process to non-structural, non-foreign object damage/safety-critical repair applications and view cold spray as a beneficial technology for applications where structural strength and service life of the repair are not essential. Use of cold spray in structural repairs is to be introduced later this year. Overall, the USAF is primarily in the R&D/demonstration stage.
Future/Next Technology – Vic Champagne (ARDEC) stated that cold spray is a proven additive manufacturing process and he described the OSD ManTech Cold Spray Repair and Rebuild Additive Manufacturing Cell design and capabilities. He also reviewed highlights from the Cold Spray Action Team to include a materials by design approach and cold spray applications with the T700, gun barrel liners, aircraft skin, and periscope repairs.
Closing Comments: Greg Kilchenstein thanked the presenters and noted the outstanding collaboration that was ongoing between the military Services. The very apparent collaboration was noted by several JTEG Principals and the opportunities to leverage each other’s efforts is a significant advantage for everyone in the community.
Presentation Slides and Questions & Answers: These meeting minutes, the Q&A, and those briefing slides approved for public release, will be posted on the JTEG website at http://jteg.ncms.org/ .
Next JTEG Meeting: The next JTEG virtual forum is 27 October 2015, 1:00 – 3:00 pm EST. The topic is Intermittence Testing.
POC this action is Ray Langlais, firstname.lastname@example.org , (571) 633-8019
Question & Answer
Applications for Ship Maintenance and Repair – (Tom Stamey)
Q1: Tom, how does PSNSY share cold spray lessons learned and qualification data amongst the NAVSEA community?
A1: Currently we don’t. Kurt Doehnert mentioned that NAVSEA conducts a cold spray meeting every few weeks. Reptech, w/ Penn State, has developed a cold spray qualification spread sheet.
Q2: Does NAVSEA have a qualification/certification template for applying cold spray other components?
A2: Not that I know of. Cold spray is so new that we have so little experience. It is a case-by-case basis.
Q3: Why were test coupons entirely cold spray? Why not spray coupons of original substrate material? Would this not be more representative to the cold spray repair?
A3: The tensile test was entirely cold spray. We wanted to see how strong cold spray was. Tensile test only. For bond testing and other tests we do spray on a substrate.
Q4: Do different types of metal sprays have different properties (i.e. tensile strength, corrosion resistance, hardness etc…)
A4: Yes, because you are spraying different metals. Properties are specific to the metal sprayed.
Q5: Does NAVSEA have a cold spray information repository?
A5: Kurt – Yes, his name is Tom Stamey. Actually, no there is no official repository. There is not a lot of cold spray conducted in NAVSEA, but about 89% of it is around Tom Stamey. We are years away from an official repository.
Q6: Does NAVSEA leverage ARL’s Cold Spray Action Team to collaborate?
A6: All the time. Every cold spray project we’ve done. For example, they help us with vendors and directing us to the right people.
Q7: Does PSNSY have a prioritized list of cold spray repair opportunities?
A7: Sort of. TD-63 was part of a long project. We look at the availability of parts. It is not a formalized process. We leverage other projects such as PSU applied research, the Keyport SBIR project, and work at Carderock.
Q8: For Tom: “How are you networking with the Cold Spray/Additive Repair folks at Keyport?”
A8: Keyport is a bit more of a narrow focus. Their project uses low pressure. We do talk to each other.
NAVAIR Cold Spray Repair – (Fred Lancaster)
Q1: Is anyone using the Colorado Cold Spray Facility in Pueblo Colorado?
A1: We are not.
Q2: Fred, what process did NAVAIR use to identify and prioritize the list of cold spray opportunities?
A2: First, it depended on which aircraft we actually owned. Then we looked at the parts that we couldn’t get. Of those, we determined which could be repaired with cold spray. The final selection was based on cost.
Q3: Is NAVAIR an active collaborator in ARL’s Cold Spray Action Team?
Q4: Is NAVAIR targeting a structural component for CS repair?
A4: Not a purely structural component at the point, but with ONR we are working on a doubler repair.
Q5: Have the OEMs been helpful in your efforts to develop and qualify CS repairs?
A5: Yes, as always the OEMs have been very helpful and cooperative. That may be influenced by the fact that this is an SBIR project.
Q6: How were you able to facilitate your CS capabilities? Do you have a CS BCA model you can share?
A6: No. None of the parts were expensive. CS is a changing way to make repairs. The S&T investment is small.
Tim Eden: PSU has some cost analysis program that can be used to estimate the cost of performing a repair. The software is available by request.
Note: NAVAIR cold spray repairs (about first 10 on Fred’s list) were performed by ARL-Penn State, but funding credit goes to the iMAST COE under ONR ManTech
USAF Cold Spray Repair – (Reg White)
Q1: Do you work closely with Fred Lancaster and NAVAIR on CS repairs? NAVAIR is beyond the R&D and Demonstration phase….
A1: We do have weekly meetings and are aware of some of the things NAVAIR does.
Q2: Does AFMC provide guidance and oversight to the SPO organizations to drive process commonality?
A2: We have provided input. Our role is to keep it on track. Each program office makes the decision on what is targeted.
Airworthiness Bulletin 1015 — Airworthiness Process for Deploying New or Substitute Materials, Processes, and Product Forms released in July 2015
Future/Next Technology – (Vic Champaign)
Q1: What CS training materials are available for engineers, logisticians and artisans?
A1: We introduced at the CSAT. Training is going to be more of a focus. We are trying to do more state of the art , hoping to introduce a virtual reality tool that uses 3D simulation for training.
Q2: Is there a repository for cold spray information that the DoD community can exploit for their specific applications and initiatives?
A2: The cold spray “bible” to date is the EFTCP report which is publicly available on the SERTA EFTCP website. We are embarking on taking the materials database and putting it into a technical report with access to DoD and DoD contractors.
Q3: A portable cold spray system that can be brought onboard ship is of very high interest to NAVSEA! Over?
A3: In 2005/2006 we designed a portable system. In 2007 we made a video and gave the design out to industry. Nothing happened from 2007-2009. Finally in 2010-2011 a joint ownership agreement was developed between the South Dakota School of Mines and ARL on the commercialization of a portable system that could be used in the field, desert, or even on a ship. It measured about 3 ft x 4 ft.
Q4: Vic, do you participate in the JDMTP (Joint Defense Manufacturing Technology Panel) materials subpanel in order to help prioritize CS in the investment portfolio?
A4: Yes. I have advocates there. I do not sit on the panel due to conflicts of interest.